Ukraine country is in Eastern Europe and the second-largest country in the continent after Russia. The Black Sea, between Poland, Romania, and Moldova in the west and Russia in the east of it’s border.
It is famous for its Conservative churches, Black Sea coastline and tree-laden mountains. It has an area of 603,628 km2 (233,062 sq mi) which makes it the 2nd largest country entirely within Europe and the 46th largest country on the planet. Its capital is Kyiv (Kiev) which is located on the Dnieper River in north-central Ukraine.
However, the Ukraine country is famous for agricultural production such as sunflowers and wheat known as the ‘Breadbasket‘ of Europe.
75% population of the Ukraine country is Orthodox Christianity, it is the main religion. Catholicism is also one of the major religions in Ukraine. Besides, there are also such confessions as Protestantism, Islam, Judaism, Buddhism and Adventism on the territory of the nation.
As per the archeological studies and from general descriptions of the early Slavs by Greek, Roman, and Arab historian, Ukrainian national historiography has divided Ukrainian history into the following periods:
- The Princely era of Kyivan Rus’ and the Principality of Galicia-Volhynia
- The period of the Lithuanian-Ruthenian state
- The period of the Cossacks & the Hetman state
- The national & cultural revival of the 19th century
- The Ukraine country-state of 1917–21
- The interwar occupation of Ukrainian territories by four foreign powers
- The solidification of most Ukrainian ethnic territory into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
- Independent Ukraine after 1991.
In the 7th century BC, people called the Scythians lived in Ukraine. Later the Greeks settled on the north coast of the Black Sea and they founded city-states there.
Then in the 9th century, Swedish Vikings voyaged along rivers into the soul of Eastern Europe & some of them settled in Ukraine country.
In 882, a Viking named Oleg captured Kyiv and it became the capital of a powerful state. But in the 11th and 12th centuries, the state broke up into pieces. Disaster struck in 1240, when the Mongols, directed by Batu, grandson of Genghis Khan conquered southern and eastern Ukraine. However, northern and western Ukraine remained independent until the 14th century when it was taken over by the Poles and Lithuanians.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, some serfs (halfway between slaves and freemen) ran away from Polish proprietors and dwelled on the steppes of Ukraine. They were called Kozaky (Cossacks), which means freemen.
However, in the late 17th century, Poland came to dominate western Ukraine while Russia dominated eastern Ukraine.
In the 18th century Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia was determined to occupy eastern Ukraine into Russia.
At 1764, The Cossack Hetmanate was put to an end. Meantime, in the 18th century, Poland was declining and in 1772-1795 Russia and Austria decided to help themselves to Polish territory. Most of western Ukraine was taken by Russia (except for a small strip in the far west, which went to Austria).
Finally, in 1783, Russia surmounted Crimea. Catherine the Great also founded Odessa.
Climate of Ukraine country
Ukraine country is the Mid-Latitude ecotone which is a transition zone between forest zone and forestless drylands.
The temperate climatic zone of Ukraine is influenced by moderately warm, humid air from the Atlantic Ocean.
Winters in the west are considerably milder than those in the east.
In summer, on the other hand, the east often experiences higher temperatures than the west. Average annual temperatures range from about 5.5–7 °C in the north to about 11–13 °C in the south. In January, which is the coldest month, the average temperature is about −3 °C in the southwest and about −8 °C in the northeast. The average in July which is the hottest month, the temperature is about 23 °C in the southeast and about 18 °C in the northwest.
Climate change causes a particular threat to Ukrainian forests and the stability of agroforestry landscapes. Water stress is one of the major limitation factors of the distribution and resilience of flatland Ukrainian forests.
The Ukraine country was the most important component of the economy of the former Soviet Union besides Russia. Today, Ukraine’s economy is based on a multi-sectoral industry, agriculture, and services.
Ukraine country has made significant progress on reforms designed to make the country flourishing, democratic, and transparent, including the creation of a national anti-corruption agency, and an overhaul of the banking sector.
Political System of Ukraine
Ukraine country is a unitary, sovereign and independent, democratic, social and legal state and is a semi-presidential republic. The executive power in the nation belongs to the Cabinet of Ministers, and the legislative power – to the parliament (the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine).
The supreme body of the judiciary in Ukraine is the Supreme Court of Ukraine.
The head of state and commander-in-chief is the president.They use popular voting system to elect the president. Time period of president term is five-years. The head of the government is the prime minister.
The people are the bearer of sovereignty and the only source of strength in Ukraine country.
Ukraine’s Participation in World war I
Ukraine country was stuck in between Russia and Austria-Hungary during World War-I. Both Russia and Austria-Hungary were belligerent powers. with the beginning of the First World War, Ukrainians were forced to fight on different sides of the Eastern Front. They split into two separate and opposing armies. Around 3.5 million Ukrainians fought with the Imperial Russian Army, while 250,000 fought for the Austro-Hungarian Army.
First World War that left millions of Russian speakers in the Soviet Republic of Ukraine.
At the end of the First World War, Ukraine became an arena of a civil war, an armed confrontation with the Bolsheviks, White and Polish armies, and the expeditionary troops of the Entente.
The internal confrontation between various social forces, and the immaturity of the Ukrainian nation led to the defeat of the Ukrainian Revolution and the inclusion of Ukrainian lands in four countries – the Soviet Union, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Romania.
At the same time (1917-1920), contemporary research literature started opening its wings & a real energetic boom in the political, social, cultural, and military spheres of the Ukrainians who fought and sacrificed their lives in the name of Ukrainian independence is seen.
Ukraine’s Participation in World war II
During the Second world war, Adolf Hitler dismembered Czechoslovakia and Subcarpathian Ruthenia became autonomous. In March 1939, when Hitler did away completely with the Czechoslovak state, he conferred Carpatho-Ukraine to Hungary, which captured the area and repressed its Ukrainian movement.
The second world war led to a massacre and violence and the violence was particularly brutal in Ukraine. When the Soviets withdrew from Western Ukrainian territory in June 1941, they shot, murdered, or burned to death.
The Germans killed hundreds of thousands of Ukrainian captives of war by starvation, gassing, and other methods.
Cuisine of Ukraine
Ukrainian cuisines recipes rich in proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. Food products are complicated to heat processing in Ukraine. So they follow these steps:
- First, they fried or boiled.
- and then stewed or baked.
This is the most distinctive feature of Ukrainian cuisine. Ukraine’s food mostly known for their variety and high taste qualities.
Ukrainian cuisine includes hundreds of recipes: borscht and pampushki, flat cakes and dumplings, mushroom sauce, banosh, vareniki and sausages, drinks from fruits and honey, etc. Some of the dishes have a centuries-old history, such as Ukrainian borscht.
Animals in Ukraine
Ukraine is a diversified nation for animal life. Around 350 species of birds, more than 100 species of mammals, and more than 200 species of fish are there in the country.
The most common predators are wolves, foxes, wildcats, and martens/Hoofed animals include roe deer, wild pigs, and sometimes elk and mouflons. The wide variety of rodents includes gophers, hamsters, jerboas, and field mice.
However, the major bird species are black and hazel grouse, owls, gulls, and partridges, as well as many migrating birds, such as wild geese, ducks, and storks. Among the fish are pike, carp, bream, perch, sturgeons, and sterlets.
Soil of Ukraine
Ukraine is known as the region’s breadbasket because of its black “chernozem” soil. Chernozem is highly fertile and rich in organic matter called humus. The soil covers more than half of the landmass of Ukraine and offers exceptional agronomic conditions for the production of a large range of crops, especially cereals and oilseeds.
- Official Name: Ukrayina
- Formerly: Carpathian Ukraine, Ukrainian Socialists Soviet Republic.
- ISO Country Code: UA, UKR
- Local Time = UTC +2h
Daylight Saving Time (DST) March – October (UTC +3)
- Country Calling Code: +380
- Capital City: Kiev (Kyiv).
- Other Cities: Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk, Kharkiv, Lviv, Odesa.
- Government Type: Presidential Parliamentary.
- Independence: August 24, 1991
- Constitution: First post-Soviet constitution adopted June 28, 1996
- Geography Location: Eastern Europe north of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, bordered by Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Moldova, Russia, and Belarus.
- Area: 603,000 km² (233,100 sq mi).
- Terrain: Mostly flat; 95% of lands are plains and 5% are mountainous.
- People Nationality: Ukrainian(s)
- Population: 42 million approx. (Jan 2020)
- Ethnic Groups: Ukrainians, Russians, Belarusians, Moldovans, Hungarians, Bulgarians, Jews, Poles, Crimean Tatars, and other groups.
- Religions: Ukrainian Orthodoxy, Ukrainian Greek Catholicism, Judaism, Roman Catholicism, Islam.
- Languages: Ukrainian (official), Russian, others.
- Literacy: 98%
- Agriculture products: grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, vegetables, beef, and milk.
- Natural Resources: Oil, Natural Gas, Manganese, Coal, Iron Ore, Mercury, Nickel, Kaolin, Magnesium, Titanium, Graphite, Sulfur, and Salt.
- Industries: Coal, Electric Power, Ferrous and Nonferrous Metals, Machinery and Transport Equipment, Chemicals, and Food Processing.
- Exports Commodities: Ferrous and Nonferrous Metals, Fuel and Petroleum Products, Chemicals, Machinery, and Transport Equipment, Foodstuffs.
- Exports Partners: Russia 9.2%, Poland 6.5%, Turkey 5.6%, India 5.5%, Italy 5.2%, China 4.6%, Germany 4.3% (2017).
- Imports Commodities: Energy, Machinery and Equipment, Chemicals.
- Imports Partners: Russia 14.5%, China 11.3%, Germany 11.2%, Poland 7%, Belarus 6.7%, US 5.1% (2017).
- Currency: Ukrainian Hryvnia (UAH).